Posted by: kpmn | January 8, 2010

A note on d way to Copenhagen-Berlin-Rome-Venice -Pisa

We start our journey on d 26th of dec untill 3rd jan. With 250 euro u can hv a great time in Copenhagn, Berlin, rome, venice n pisa. This cover yr flight ticket fr all destinatn, hotel in london, berlin, rome n Venice.

How we manage to get cheap flight ticket? Here is some tips. Booked it earlier, we hv booked this ticket 2 mnths ealier thn d travel time. Bought d ticket without check in bag fr all destinatn except fr d last one. The check in bag will cost u up to several 20 euros or more. Fr the last destination booked a wth check in bag as u may hv shopping alot during yr time in rome.

The plan itenary was like this :
a. on the 26th – from norwich to london (stay one nite at holiday in stanted)
b. on the 27th – fly from stanted to copenhagen Denmark (stay a nite there)
c. on the 28th – fly from Copengagen to Berlin (stay 2 nites there)
d. on the 31st – fly from Berlin to Rome (stay 3 nites)* i supposed to stay 2 nites in rome and 1 nite in Venice, but due to unexpected event, the trip to venice was cancelled
e. on the 3rd Jan – travel from rome to pisa, n fly back to london

I m travelling frm nrwich by bus to london (vctria sttn) n stay a nite at holiday inn stanted, bcause boxing day in london on d 26th, so bettr not to miss it. I miss a chance to see venice in this trip n i am very fortunate tht i just lost 20 euro fr d flight tcket n none fr d hotel. U may be facing the same thing if u hv a trip on d end of d year n u should aware abt several issues when u plan yr trip during christmas n new yr. Be aware abt d weather, d boxing day, new year n bank holiday. This is significantly has an effect to yr plan which i will xplain later.

Our 1st place of d trip was copenhagen denmark. The currency of denmark is kroner. As we just stay 1 nite in denmrk we just spent abt 180 euros. Well this is fr hop on hop off bus, food, metro (the tube), hotel n souvenir fr 2 ppl (me n my fren). Copenhagen is d central of denmark but i guess u will c d diference of this capital compre to othr country. Cpnhgn is quite small and U will not get lost there. U can hv a day trip by hop on hop off bus to see all d main attractions of d ct.

however, one of my friend can spent 5 days in copenhgn. I just wondering how she managed to stay tht long. If u do d trip during summr u can spnt a week bcause there r so many things n event held in d ct but if u go during winter d hop on bus only have 1 route instead of 3. U may experience some diffculty to understand d explaintn durng d bus trip. As i miss understood abt the real locatn of little mirmaid. B aware of tht. If u not sure where to off frm d bus follow d other ppl. The hop on bus will stop operating as early as 3 pm during winter, so manged yr time properly. Try to fully occupied yr time trvel with the the hop on bus so that u will know the history of the ct before hv yr own sightsieng.

some interestbg plce in copnhgn that i like are tivoli garden n littl mirmaid. D Tivoli grdn is very nice during nite time but u hv to pay fr the entrance abt 95 kroner or 13 euros. Whn u in denmrk u may feel all the item sold here r xpnsive. Things mostly from 19 kronr (1 can of coke) up to 1000 kroner (1 hndbag) but when u cnvert to yr currency it is abt d same. Dnt afraid wth d numbers as it still not too xpnsive.

Finished our trip in Copenhagen, we fly to berlin. We arrived almost 1 am in d morng of 28th. Frm d berlin airpot they hv train tht u cn used to go to yr hotel but please make sure u got full directn on wht tube line to take to go to yr hotel as d train in germn is similr to undrgrnd tube in london, so many lines n so many stop. As u arrived at the tube station ry to look fr the tube map n ask people there if u hv difficulty to purchase d tickt frm the mchine. Through my xperience, ppl in germn r so kind and friendly n they speak fluent english or if they dont they still understnd wht u asked them. Nothng to worry if u
get lost.

We get up early on the next day n straight away catched up d hop on bus frm our hotel (we r so lucky to get 4 star hotel 5 minute walk from d main train station at 3 star prize). D trip were devided to 2. They usually hv a boat trip for u to view berlin frm d water channel but not during winter. On d first day we took a hop on bus to postdam. This will cost u 37 euros. Pls dnt frget to ask fr a student discount as they provided u with a gd price. Postdam is at d outskirt of berlin . It took 45 min ride by bus. D trip start as early as 10 am n finishd by 3 pm. It is worth while fr u to go here and hv a view of d emperial town. there hv many nice garden n castle. D bus to postdam was provided wth tourist guide in germn n english lnguage. Be preprd to take photos frm d bus as this bus will not stop n wait fr u to take picture n ths is also not a hop off bus. I’m sure if u come during summer u may hv a very nice time to enjoy d view. Nothng much u can c during wnter as it was fogy. N brng bck some souvnir- nice fridge mgnt, postcrd, book or porcelain. If u like d sound of fluet do buy the cd here. It is d best fluet eva. I like it very much.

On d 2nd day take d hop on buss an hv a tour of berlin ct. Dont miss to hv a look of berlin wall, the army check point n listn to d history of all places in berlin. Berlin is the historical town wth too much
blood n pain n war. Dont missed to feel the sadness n anger of d previous ppl by knowng d history. We r so lucky during this trip as it was snowy on d 2nd day of our trip here (30th). But its not so cold like u r in norwch or londn perhaps. Brng along yr snow cap n glove to make u comfrtable along d journey.

As fr muslim its hard fr u to find halal restaurant in all of ths places. U may hv choice to eat in d chinese restaurant, thailnd, japanese sushi or mcd. Or u cn brng yr own food as well. If u like bring along
elctrc rice cookr coz u cn cook here as we can find all d raw material to cook.

Our journey was cntnue to d third place – rome on d 31st. We arrived late frm our plan as we got stuck in d the thick snowy frm berlin. We arrived at 12 oclock n straight away took d train to barberini where we stay there. Barberini is a convinience place to stay as it is near to d republica one of d main attraction n u cn easily find souvnir shop, restarante, bar n also internt point (d similar term fr intrnet cafe). Some of d hotel does nt hv wireless internet so fr those who need d access u can easily find here. U also can find halal kebab near to termini station lies on Via principale amedeo (via is d name of d street).

As we arrived on d 31st we straight away bought the 2 days hop on hop off bus tckt. U may not cover all romano in one day. D price fr studnt is 18 euro. They r so many hop on bus tht u can choose. D best is survey d price 1st n took d chepest wth d most frequent bus. D one tht we took is ‘open tour bus’ wth 15 minute frequent bus. As tomorow was public holday (bear in mind its new yr 1st jan) we hv to stay more thn what we expected n hv to cancel our trip to venice.

Dont worry abt new yr as d hop on bus still operatng during new yr if u chose d correct one. Do ask them thoroughly n dont get cheated. U maybe approached by the seller with so many promises. Took d one tht is most convenience n reliable. After all they just care abt their business. One more thing is some of d bus company just offer u with 13 stops instead of 17. And some offer u onLy hop on with no hop off.

As i did mentn befr choose d best among d worst.

We straight away went to d main attractn d coloseum on our first day visited rome. At d coloseum we bought a tcket fr d entrance n d tour guide at 22 euros (entrance is 12 , guide is 10). This tour in d coloseum took 2 hrs n d tour outside d coloseum (foro romano, maximus etc) was held on d 2nd jan. On d 1st jan collosseoum is close n also fr d tour, all shops were closed too.

It was a gd choice to hv a guide who can tell u d story of d romano coloseo one of d 7 wnders in d world. N u should complete both tour as it will complete yr trip. U also can buy some souvenir frm the stall outside d coloseoum. Some of their item was much mr cheaper thn in d shop. Fr examle t shirt in
shop is 8 euro bt at stall it is 5 euro. Took as many pictr as u want in whteva style, as u may miss ths moment when u r back. Frm d coloseum chose what eva destinatn u want to stop frm the hop off
bus n hv a look n feel d warmest history get alive.

D 2nd place that i like most in rome is d vatican ct. Do stop at st petr basilica n walk to d entrance of d smallest ct in d world. If u like reading Dan Brown book or hv seen d movies of angle n demon do experience d story in d st peter basilica of vatican. N try to imagine n located the four cardinals were killed based on 4 elements of air, water, earth and fire.

U also may get a tourist guide to guide u on d journey inside of st petr basilica. The tour took u 3 hours as u will bring to d importnt things in that museum. They said to hv a look of all inside the st ptr basilica will took u 15 yrs. perhaps its true ūüôā

If u still in rome on d 2nd jan, early in d morning u can do some shopping in their boutique shopes such as zara, mng, guess etc. All this shop is located at via del corso. Its not far from d pantheon n
piaza of nuaza. Hv a look on d map n u may get great bargain price during this grand sale in rome.

Winter in rome is like spring in uk, windy n raining. Bring along yr umbrella when u hv a sightseing. But dont buy d umbrella from d street seller as they r rubbish. They gonna charge u from 5 to 10
euro fr one umbrella n u just can use it at least fr 15 minute befr it being demolished in d strong wind and end up in d dust bin. Bring d gd umbrella together or else wear jacket with hoodies fr yr convenience.

Train in Rome is not as systematic as wht u imagine. ppl maybe cAnnot help u because some of them cant understnd english. Its good sometime if u know some of d basic words as it will make u easier. Please bring along coin when u want to purchase d train tcket frm d machine as they will not receive notes and they r no counter ticket tht u can buy with yr notes. D ppl who incharge of d train system was not so helpful. They might just ignore u if u ask fr help or directn, its either they not understand u or they r wht they r. But dont take it too serius as u may hv face d same thng everywhere. Ppl is still ppl, they r not symmetrical like wht u saw in most of d design inside d colloseoum.

Frm d rome we took a train to pisa. It was 3 hrs journey undr d bright sunny day n i cant wait to end this trip n going home. Its make u feel tired if u hv straight 8 days trip non stop but d experience was
fascinated. If u hv a plan to hv a trip like this plan it properly n u may feel it quite interesting.

Posted by: kpmn | April 29, 2009

Secrets of successful phd student

The seven secrets of highly successful PhD students
Researchers who know and make use of these seven secrets get through their doctorate more quickly, and just as importantly are happier, according to the Staff Development and Training Unit, Flinders University, Australia.

1. Care and maintenance of your supervisors

* Meet regularly with your supervisors (even if they think it is not that necessary)
* Discuss and negotiate your progress regularly
* Understand your different styles. If your supervisor keeps wanting you to follow up new leads and you are happy to, and you are five years into your study, it is time to get some outside perspective and guidance
* If it is not working out, do something about it. Don’t just think it will get better or that you can do it on your own

2. Write and show as you go: This is show and tell, not hide and seek

* Always write and show as you go. If you are reading and not writing, after about 3 or 4 weeks you will forget what you have read
* Writing and showing your work forces you to stay on track and refine your thinking
* Writing is helpful because at the end you can’t hand in your head full of lots of good ideas
* Set deadlines for your writing and handing in. People generally don’t write because of issues of perfectionism, so avoid this with deadlines
* Generally it is a good idea to write journal articles (on your exact thesis topic), as you go
* Practice writing with your peers, this can be very effective

3. Be realistic: It’s not a Nobel Prize

* When you are doing PhD you are learning how to do a PhD, you are not expected to know this in advance
* Original work does not mean a cure for cancer. In reality it means one small step in advancing existing knowledge
* Do not go off on tangents in the hope of answering ‘The question’, stay focused
* You have a cast iron guarantee right now that your thesis will not, cannot and probably should not, be perfect
* Separate yourself from your PhD. It’s a bunch of thoughts on a piece of paper, it’s not you. Put it in perspective

4. Say no to distractions: Even the fun ones and the ones you think you must do

* Set priorities and be realistic about what you can do
* Do the important rather than the immediately urgent
* Cleaning scum build-up from the shower may be more fun than your PhD, but it won’t get the thesis done. Resist this and other urges, and keep writing!
* The golden rule to avoid over-commitment is don’t let anything eat into your set study times, or as you would with a job, make the time up if interruption is unavoidable

5. It’s a job: That means working nine to five but you get holidays

* You may not work from nine to five, but you definitely need fixed hours. Otherwise how should you know when you should be working?
* Set up a proper workplace. A bus station, university corridor or the lounge room with a TV on are not proper work areas
* Like a job, if you take time off, make it up somewhere else. You wouldn’t just not show up to work for three days with no consequences
* Set deadlines and targets. There are very few jobs where the boss says “I’ll see you in three years time with that report”
* When you stick to your work times, you get guilt-free time off in the evenings and holidays (like a job). Don’t try to squeeze more out of yourself. You’ll just kill the goose that lays the golden eggs

6. Get help: You are not an owner-operator single person business

* This means you are allowed to get help. Not only are you allowed, but you will greatly reduce time and effort if you do
* Get help from statistics consultants, editors, methodologists, academics, peers, your supervisors…
* Use any and all formal assistance in the university/institution including tutors and graduate schools, skills development and faculty staff

7. You can do it: A PhD is about intelligence and persistence

* You would not have got this far if you did not have the intelligence to do it. If you feel like impostor, be reassured that most people doing a PhD feel that way
* Persistence is at least as important ingredient; this comes from habits like meeting regularly with your supervisors, treating PhD like a job etc.
* So in fact the final habit of a highly effective PhD researcher is to know and believe that you can do it, and when the going gets tough, keep going!

To The Candidate:

So, you are preparing to write a Ph.D. dissertation in an experimental area of Computer Science. Unless you have written many formal documents before, you are in for a surprise: it’s difficult!

There are two possible paths to success:

  • ¬†
    • Planning Ahead.

Few take this path. The few who do leave the University so quickly that they are hardly noticed. If you want to make a lasting impression and have a long career as a graduate student, do not choose it.

  • ¬†
    • Perseverance.

All you really have to do is outlast your doctoral committee. The good news is that they are much older than you, so you can guess who will eventually expire first. The bad news is that they are more practiced at this game (after all, they persevered in the face of their doctoral committee, didn’t they?).

Here are a few guidelines that may help you when you finally get serious about writing. The list goes on forever; you probably won’t want to read it all at once. But, please read it before you write anything.


The General Idea:

  1. A thesis is a hypothesis or conjecture.
  2. A PhD dissertation is a lengthy, formal document that argues in defense of a particular thesis. (So many people use the term “thesis” to refer to the document that a current dictionary now includes it as the third meaning of “thesis”).
  3. Two important adjectives used to describe a dissertation are “original” and “substantial.” The research performed to support a thesis must be both, and the dissertation must show it to be so. In particular, a dissertation highlights original contributions.
  4. The scientific method means starting with a hypothesis and then collecting evidence to support or deny it. Before one can write a dissertation defending a particular thesis, one must collect evidence that supports it. Thus, the most difficult aspect of writing a dissertation consists of organizing the evidence and associated discussions into a coherent form.
  5. The essence of a dissertation is critical thinking, not experimental data. Analysis and concepts form the heart of the work.
  6. A dissertation concentrates on principles: it states the lessons learned, and not merely the facts behind them.
  7. In general, every statement in a dissertation must be supported either by a reference to published scientific literature or by original work. Moreover, a dissertation does not repeat the details of critical thinking and analysis found in published sources; it uses the results as fact and refers the reader to the source for further details.
  8. Each sentence in a dissertation must be complete and correct in a grammatical sense. Moreover, a dissertation must satisfy the stringent rules of formal grammar (e.g., no contractions, no colloquialisms, no slurs, no undefined technical jargon, no hidden jokes, and no slang, even when such terms or phrases are in common use in the spoken language). Indeed, the writing in a dissertaton must be crystal clear. Shades of meaning matter; the terminology and prose must make fine distinctions. The words must convey exactly the meaning intended, nothing more and nothing less.
  9. Each statement in a dissertation must be correct and defensible in a logical and scientific sense. Moreover, the discussions in a dissertation must satisfy the most stringent rules of logic applied to mathematics and science.


What One Should Learn From The Exercise:


  1. All scientists need to communicate discoveries; the PhD dissertation provides training for communication with other scientists.
  2. Writing a dissertation requires a student to think deeply, to organize technical discussion, to muster arguments that will convince other scientists, and to follow rules for rigorous, formal presentation of the arguments and discussion.


A Rule Of Thumb:


Good writing is essential in a dissertation. However, good writing cannot compensate for a paucity of ideas or concepts. Quite the contrary, a clear presentation always exposes weaknesses.


Definitions And Terminology:


  1. Each technical term used in a dissertation must be defined either by a reference to a previously published definition (for standard terms with their usual meaning) or by a precise, unambiguous definition that appears before the term is used (for a new term or a standard term used in an unusual way).
  2. Each term should be used in one and only one way throughout the dissertation.
  3. The easiest way to avoid a long series of definitions is to include a statement: “the terminology used throughout this document follows that given in [CITATION].” Then, only define exceptions.
  4. The introductory chapter can give the intuition (i.e., informal definitions) of terms provided they are defined more precisely later.


Terms And Phrases To Avoid:


  • adverbs

Mostly, they are very often overly used. Use strong words instead. For example, one could say, “Writers abuse adverbs.”

  • jokes or puns

They have no place in a formal document.

  • “bad”, “good”, “nice”, “terrible”, “stupid”

A scientific dissertation does not make moral judgements. Use “incorrect/correct” to refer to factual correctness or errors. Use precise words or phrases to assess quality (e.g., “method A requires less computation than method B”). In general, one should avoid all qualitative judgements.

  • “true”, “pure”,

In the sense of “good” (it is judgemental).

  • “perfect”

Nothing is.

  • “an ideal solution”

You’re judging again.

  • “today”, “modern times”

Today is tomorrow’s yesterday.

  • “soon”

How soon? Later tonight? Next decade?

  • “we were surprised to learn…”

Even if you were, so what?

  • “seems”, “seemingly”,

It doesn’t matter how something appears;

  • “would seem to show”

all that matters are the facts.

  • “in terms of”

usually vague

  • “based on”, “X-based”, “as the basis of”

careful; can be vague

  • “different”

Does not mean “various”; different than what?

  • “in light of”


  • “lots of”

vague & colloquial

  • “kind of”

vague & colloquial

  • “type of”

vague & colloquial

  • “something like”

vague & colloquial

  • “just about”

vague & colloquial

  • “number of”

vague; do you mean “some”, “many”, or “most”? A quantative statement is preferable.

  • “due to”


  • “probably”

only if you know the statistical probability (if you do, state it quantatively

  • “obviously, clearly”

be careful: obvious/clear to everyone?

  • “simple”

Can have a negative connotation, as in “simpleton”

  • “along with”

Just use “with”

  • “actually, really”

define terms precisely to eliminate the need to clarify

  • “the fact that”

makes it a meta-sentence; rephrase

  • “this”, “that”

As in “This causes concern.” Reason: “this” can refer to the subject of the previous sentence, the entire previous sentence, the entire previous paragraph, the entire previous section, etc. More important, it can be interpreted in the concrete sense or in the meta-sense. For example, in: “X does Y. This means …” the reader can assume “this” refers to Y or to the fact that X does it. Even when restricted (e.g., “this computation…”), the phrase is weak and often ambiguous.

  • “You will read about…”

The second person has no place in a formal dissertation.

  • “I will describe…”

The first person has no place in a formal dissertation. If self-reference is essential, phrase it as “Section 10 describes…”

  • “we” as in “we see that”

A trap to avoid. Reason: almost any sentence can be written to begin with “we” because “we” can refer to: the reader and author, the author and advisor, the author and research team, experimental computer scientists, the entire computer science community, the science community, or some other unspecified group.

  • “Hopefully, the program…”

Computer programs don’t hope, not unless they implement AI systems. By the way, if you are writing an AI thesis, talk to someone else: AI people have their own system of rules.

  • “…a famous researcher…”

It doesn’t matter who said it or who did it. In fact, such statements prejudice the reader.

  • Be Careful When Using “few, most, all, any, every”.

A dissertation is precise. If a sentence says “Most computer systems contain X”, you must be able to defend it. Are you sure you really know the facts? How many computers were built and sold yesterday?

  • “must”, “always”


  • “should”

Who says so?

  • “proof”, “prove”

Would a mathematician agree that it’s a proof?

  • “show”

Used in the sense of “prove”. To “show” something, you need to provide a formal proof.

  • “can/may”

Your mother probably told you the difference.




Use active constructions. For example, say “the operating system starts the device” instead of “the device is started by the operating system.”




Write in the present tense. For example, say “The system writes a page to the disk and then uses the frame…” instead of “The system will use the frame after it wrote the page to disk…”


Define Negation Early:


Example: say “no data block waits on the output queue” instead of “a data block awaiting output is not on the queue.”


Grammar And Logic:


Be careful that the subject of each sentence really does what the verb says it does. Saying “Programs must make procedure calls using the X instruction” is not the same as saying “Programs must use the X instruction when they call a procedure.” In fact, the first is patently false! Another example: “RPC requires programs to transmit large packets” is not the same as “RPC requires a mechanism that allows programs to transmit large packets.”

All computer scientists should know the rules of logic. Unfortunately the rules are more difficult to follow when the language of discourse is English instead of mathematical symbols. For example, the sentence “There is a compiler that translates the N languages by…” means a single compiler exists that handles all the languages, while the sentence “For each of the N languages, there is a compiler that translates…” means that there may be 1 compiler, 2 compilers, or N compilers. When written using mathematical symbols, the difference are obvious because “for all” and “there exists” are reversed.


Focus On Results And Not The People/Circumstances In Which They Were Obtained:


“After working eight hours in the lab that night, we realized…” has no place in the dissertation. It doesn’t matter when you realized it or how long you worked to obtain the answer. Another example: “Jim and I arrived at the numbers shown in Table 3 by measuring…” Put an acknowledgement to Jim in the dissertation, but do not include names (even your own) in the main body. You may be tempted to document a long series of experiments that produced nothing or a coincidence that resulted in success. Avoid it completely. In particular, do not document seemingly mystical influences (e.g., “if that cat had not crawled through the hole in the floor, we might not have discovered the power supply error indicator on the network bridge”). Never attribute such events to mystical causes or imply that strange forces may have affected your results. Summary: stick to the plain facts. Describe the results without dwelling on your reactions or events that helped you achieve them.


Avoid Self-Assessment (both praise and criticism):


Both of the following examples are incorrect: “The method outlined in Section 2 represents a major breakthrough in the design of distributed systems because…” “Although the technique in the next section is not earthshaking,…”


References To Extant Work:


One always cites papers, not authors. Thus, one uses a singular verb to refer to a paper even though it has multiple authors. For example “Johnson and Smith [J&S90] reports that…”

Avoid the phrase “the authors claim that X”. The use of “claim” casts doubt on “X” because it references the authors’ thoughts instead of the facts. If you agree “X” is correct, simply state “X” followed by a reference. If one absolutely must reference a paper instead of a result, say “the paper states that…” or “Johnson and Smith [J&S 90] presents evidence that…”.


Concept Vs. Instance:


A reader can become confused when a concept and an instance of it are blurred. Common examples include: an algorithm and a particular program that implements it, a programming language and a compiler, a general abstraction and its particular implementation in a computer system, a data structure and a particular instance of it in memory.


Terminology For Concepts And Abstractions


When defining the terminology for a concept, be careful to decide precisely how the idea translates to an implementation. Consider the following discussion:

VM systems include a concept known as an address space. The system dynamically creates an address space when a program needs one, and destroys an address space when the program that created the space has finished using it. A VM system uses a small, finite number to identify each address space. Conceptually, one understands that each new address space should have a new identifier. However, if a VM system executes so long that it exhausts all possible address space identifiers, it must reuse a number.

The important point is that the discussion only makes sense because it defines “address space” independently from “address space identifier”. If one expects to discuss the differences between a concept and its implementation, the definitions must allow such a distinction.


Knowledge Vs. Data


The facts that result from an experiment are called “data”. The term “knowledge” implies that the facts have been analyzed, condensed, or combined with facts from other experiments to produce useful information.


Cause and Effect:


A dissertation must carefully separate cause-effect relationships from simple statistical correlations. For example, even if all computer programs written in Professor X’s lab require more memory than the computer programs written in Professor Y’s lab, it may not have anything to do with the professors or the lab or the programmers (e.g., maybe the people working in professor X’s lab are working on applications that require more memory than the applications in professor Y’s lab).


Drawing Only Warranted Conclusions:


One must be careful to only draw conclusions that the evidence supports. For example, if programs run much slower on computer A than on computer B, one cannot conclude that the processor in A is slower than the processor in B unless one has ruled out all differences in the computers’ operating systems, input or output devices, memory size, memory cache, or internal bus bandwidth. In fact, one must still refrain from judgement unless one has the results from a controlled experiment (e.g., running a set of several programs many times, each when the computer is otherwise idle). Even if the cause of some phenomenon seems obvious, one cannot draw a conclusion without solid, supporting evidence.


Commerce and Science:


In a scientific dissertation, one never draws conclusions about the economic viability or commercial success of an idea/method, nor does one speculate about the history of development or origins of an idea. A scientist must remain objective about the merits of an idea independent of its commercial popularity. In particular, a scientist never assumes that commercial success is a valid measure of merit (many popular products are neither well-designed nor well-engineered). Thus, statements such as “over four hundred vendors make products using technique Y” are irrelevant in a dissertation.


Politics And Science:


A scientist avoids all political influence when assessing ideas. Obviously, it should not matter whether government bodies, political parties, religious groups, or other organizations endorse an idea. More important and often overlooked, it does not matter whether an idea originated with a scientist who has already won a Nobel prize or a first-year graduate student. One must assess the idea independent of the source.


Canonical Organization:


In general, every dissertation must define the problem that motivated the research, tell why that problem is important, tell what others have done, describe the new contribution, document the experiments that validate the contribution, and draw conclusions. There is no canonical organization for a dissertation; each is unique. However, novices writing a dissertation in the experimental areas of CS may find the following example a good starting point:

  • ¬†
    • Chapter 1: Introduction

An overview of the problem; why it is important; a summary of extant work and a statement of your hypothesis or specific question to be explored. Make it readable by anyone.


  • ¬†
    • Chapter 2: Definitions

New terms only. Make the definitions precise, concise, and unambiguous.


  • ¬†
    • Chapter 3: Conceptual Model

Describe the central concept underlying your work. Make it a “theme” that ties together all your arguments. It should provide an answer to the question posed in the introduction at a conceptual level. If necessary, add another chapter to give additional reasoning about the problem or its solution.


  • ¬†
    • Chapter 4: Experimental Measurements

Describe the results of experiments that provide evidence in support of your thesis. Usually experiments either emphasize proof-of-concept (demonstrating the viability of a method/technique) or efficiency (demonstrating that a method/technique provides better performance than those that exist).


  • ¬†
    • Chapter 5: Corollaries And Consequences

Describe variations, extensions, or other applications of the central idea.


  • ¬†
    • Chapter 6: Conclusions

Summarize what was learned and how it can be applied. Mention the possibilities for future research.


  • ¬†
    • Abstract:

A short (few paragraphs) summary of the the dissertation. Describe the problem and the research approach. Emphasize the original contributions.


Suggested Order For Writing:


The easiest way to build a dissertation is inside-out. Begin by writing the chapters that describe your research (3, 4, and 5 in the above outline). Collect terms as they arise and keep a definition for each. Define each technical term, even if you use it in a conventional manner.

Organize the definitions into a separate chapter. Make the definitions precise and formal. Review later chapters to verify that each use of a technical term adheres to its definition. After reading the middle chapters to verify terminology, write the conclusions. Write the introduction next. Finally, complete an abstract.


Key To Success:


By the way, there is a key to success: practice. No one ever learned to write by reading essays like this. Instead, you need to practice, practice, practice. Every day.


Parting thoughts:


We leave you with the following ideas to mull over. If they don’t mean anything to you now, revisit them after you finish wirting a dissertation.

After great pain, a formal feeling comes.

— Emily Dickinson

A man may write at any time, if he will set himself doggedly to it.

— Samuel Johnson

Keep right on to the end of the road.

— Harry Lauder

The average Ph.D. thesis is nothing but the transference of bones from one graveyard to another.

— Frank J. Dobie


Posted by: kpmn | September 26, 2008

Tahniah and wish u all d best




KPMN ingin mengucapkan selamat maju jaya kepada rakan-rakan yg telah berjaya menamatkan pengajian master masing2. Tahniah buat Erni, Marina, Jojo, Dayang dan Azam.

Posted by: kpmn | September 25, 2008

Latest announcement

Pengumuman dr Syed Khairil berkenaan dengan kemudahan perkhidmatan pengangkutan, shipping dsb. Tertera adalah laman web yg berkenaan:

salam ramadhan kepada semua warga malaysia di uk…Boleh tolong sebarkan kemudahan perkhidmatan pengangkutan, pemindahan (removal within uk), shipping door to door, kontena dan banyak lagi sevice yang kita tawarkan…sila layari laman web…many thanks..


Pengumuman dr Amir Ainuddin Al Attas Baki

Kepada mereka yg penah buka fotopages kpmn yg lame dulu, pasword n id diperlukan tuk membolehkan gambar2 terkini di upload, n bagi mengelakkan fotopages baru dibuka. sila kn la bg user name n pasword kt klu x, fotopages yg baru akan di buke P

Posted by: kpmn | September 15, 2008

Majlis berbuka KPMN


Majlis berbuka KPMN telah berjaya diadakan pada 13 September 2008. Terima kasih diucapkan kepada semua yang hadir bagi menjayakan majlis ini, dan terima kasih kepada semua yang menyumbangkan juadah pada majlis tersebut. Di majlis tersebut juga KPMN berjaya membuat kutipan derma sebanyak £200 utk di dermakan bagi menjayakan pembinaan masjid utk komuniti Islam di Norwich.

Meskipun ada di antara kita yang tidak akan berada lama di Norwich, di harapkan dengan sumbangan ikhlas ini boleh memberikan sedikit sebanyak bantuan dan kemudahan pada komuniti Islam di masa akan datang.


KPMN sekali lagi mengucapkan ribuan terima kasih atas setiap sumbangan yang diberikan dan berharap majlis seperti ini akan terus diadakan di masa akan datang.


Sekian, terima kasih.

Posted by: kpmn | August 31, 2008

Salam Ramadhan 1429H

Alhamdulillah, Ramadhan menjegah lagi. Bersyukur kite ke hadrat ilahi, kerana sekali lagi ditemukan dengan Ramadhan kali ini, bulan yang paling mulia dan bermakna buat umah Islam.

Ramadhan kali ini, Insya Allah akan disambut pada 1 September 2008 / 1 Ramadhan 1429 H.

Semoga ibadah kita pada Ramadhan kali ini akan diberkati oleh Yang Maha Esa. Di kesempatan yang diberikan sekali lagi oleh Nya di harapkan dapatla kita memperbaiki setiap amalan dan mengambil peluang memperbaiki kelemahan diri.

Salam Ramadhan dari kami.

Posted by: kpmn | August 31, 2008

Selamat Menyambut Kemerdekaan ke 51 Malaysia


Assalamualaikum & salam Sejahtera,


Di kesempatan ini, kami warga Malaysia di Norwich, ingin mengucapkan selamat menyambut Hari Kemerdekaan yang ke 51 buat negara tercinta Malaysia. Semoga kemerdekaan yang dipertahankan selama ini akan dapat terus dipertahankan.

Besar la harapan kami, agar kemerdekaan ini akan terus dikecapi dan Malaysia terus menjadi sebuah negara yang aman harmoni dan selamat utk didiami. 

Selamat menyambut HARI KEMERDEKAAN dari kami.

Posted by: kpmn | August 18, 2008

bbq 2008




Sebahagian gambar yg sempt sy upload (mood tgh maleh),kepada¬†sapa2¬†yg teringin gambar selebih nya,sila email di¬†..insya’allah,email anda akan¬†dilayan…lps nie nk upload semua gambar event¬†kpmn¬†di fotopages,senang semua nk view..bila sudah siap kpmn/fotopages akan di link kn dari blog kpmn.

Best Regards,

Amir Yusof.

Posted by: kpmn | August 18, 2008

Thinking of trip to Barcelona? Here the tips… :)


Thinking of planning a trip to Barcelona Spain? Great…some of the tips may help u in your planning.

First of all bear in mind, when u r planning to go, if its in Aug, Barcelona is in summer and the hottest eva. The temperature can be as high as 33 degrees. It may good for those who are planning for sun bath. Great idea huh? P8100064_1 

Bring yr tshirt, sneakers and sandal. Sandal fr u to be on beach. U can buy in B’lona if u have no time to pack everything. Dont forget yr life seva, yr SUNBLOCK my dear. If u dont want to get tanned very quickly, sunblock SPF 25 or more will help. Bring or buy cap. Look for weather forecast. Sometime it will be raining in B’lona.

The B’lona currency is in euro’s. If u r travel from UK, it may cost u around 240 pound for the return flight tickets and hotel for your 4 days 3 nite stay. Make sure u book it earlier i would like to suggest 2 months before your vacation so that u can get a cheaper travel package if u r lucky enough. If its beyond yr budget, i may suggest u search for a hostel to stay, there are a lot of hostel that u can get. It is really good if u manage to find a hotel in the city centre, easier for u to travel a long the journey. P8100063¬†

Bear in mind, there are a lot of ‘pickpocket’ in Barcelona. If u dont want to loose anything make sure u leave some of yr money in a safer place. If u r thingking of bringing a bag pack a long, i may suggest u change yr mind. Bag pack may expose yourself to the pick pocket, instead of bag pack, use sling bag or poch that u can monitor all the time. Yr things is¬†on yr own risk, so dont let anything destroy yr vacation mood.

P8100150 Once u reach Barcelona airport go to the information centre and get the train map and travel map along. U may also buy the ‘hop on and hop off’ bus ticket here. For two days travel by this bus it cost u 26 euros. Trust me, it is really worth it. two days travel by this bus is enough for u to cover the whole Barcelona. If u dont have much time to que in the information centre in the airport dont worry, they are many inform board in the city. Ask people if u get lost.

P8100075¬†P8100068 Dont get surprise if all shops close on sunday, its normal in Barcelona. but for me its crazy. So if u arrived on Sunday, just check in to the hotel, have P8100065 some rest and go to the beach. If u are not really like to be on the beach, walk a long the city centre and have a ‘tapas’ – the seafood on the biscuit. The inform cntre will suggest u which is the best tapas rest in Barcelona. It will not cost u much, one tapas may cost from 1,70 euro to 5,60 euro. from my experience, me and my two other friends have to pay only 51 euros included drinks. Its quite cheap.P8100072¬†

HALAL FOOD?…I would like to suggest go for MC D and ask fish fillet, or eat TAPAS as u r here, because tapas is from seafood. Or else, bring travel cooker and cook by yrself. Use the Brahim packet of spice, such as kari ikan, kari daging, tomyam cube. Buy the sardine or tuna that dip in ‘sunflower oil’ and cook it with the curry. Try this recipee, u will luv it. Trust me (credited to kak Harisun fr the recipee).

Be careful with the restaurant. The upper restaurant may not be the same owner as down stairs. u may get cheated, ask thoroughly. If u not sure better leave the restaurant or u may have to pay as much as 100 euros for yr food. Beware of this.

For shoppers, u can shop all the time in Barcelona. Zara, MNG, P8100090 Desigual, Topshop, H&M and many other branded item u can find here. If u r lucky u can get as cheaper as u want. For hard rock tshirt colector its only cost u from 20 to 25 euro per tshirt. Thinking of buying for frens & family.

P8100101 P8100118 P8100119 After having a lunch, have a walk a long La Rambla. U will find many interesting things a long yr way. There also many souvenir shop here, i may suggest u buy the souvenir here. At La Rambla u can get 3 fridge magnet for 10 euros, and 3 key chain at the same price (standard). If u know their language u can bargain, but if u just know english dont ever think u can get loose. Some of the people here not really gd in english. Dont make situation get worst. P8100095 

P8100132¬†P8100168 Keep walking to Port Vell, a nice blue sea-port. In the middle of yr way, u will see the Barcelona Colon, one of the signage of¬†B’lona. Upper to the Port Vell, is the shopping mall. This shopping mall open until 4 o’clock in the morning and this shopping mall open without fail even on sunday. Have a look, maybe u can buy yr swimming suit here.

P8110218 P8110222 On the nite, go and find the Montjuic fountain. It will start at 8 pm. The biggest fountain and colourful that may cherish yr day. Make sure yr camera has full charging, if not u will miss the most fantastic fountain eva. its free of charge, u may seat as near to the fountain or as far as u like. Remember, this fountain is only in show during friday, saturday n sunday. So if u r in the vacation within this day, dont eva miss it.

P8110262 P8110412 On yr second and third day, u will travel by the turistic bus (remember the ticket that u have paid yesterday at the informtn counter). If u forgot to buy the ticket, u can buy it straight away on the bus. There are 3 routes to cover, blue, red and green. Keep the ticket as u will use it fr the next day.Img_2914 

Img_2811 Img_2883 Seat on the top of the bus, as it easier for u to have a nice shot of picture. Wear cap, because u may not stand the heat a long the journey. The tourist guide will give u the earphone for u to listen the story of all places that u reach. Plug in yr earphone to the stereo, choose yr language (No. 3 for english) and adjust the volume. Enjoy!!!Img_2948 

P8110260¬†P8110376 For the first day, i would like to suggest go for blue routes, u may reach Estacio de sains, Placa de espanya, MNAC, Olympic stadium, de montjuic, colom museum, port vell, zoo, Barri’ Gotic. There are a lot of place to see in¬†the blue routes, so dont miss it. For the second day gor for a red one. U may see de Gracia la pedrera. sagrada Familia, Gracia, Park Guell (must go),¬† Tramvia, FC Barcelona Club. P8110285¬†

P8120649 P8120629 The FC barcelona football club, if u like to see the same as the Old Trafford, the ticket to enter the stadium is 17 euros. If u dont, just hang up and buy some souvenir in the shop. There a jacket, tshirt, ball, mug, cap, jersey etc for souvenir. The jersey may cost u from 25 euro to 60, the mug will cost u 6 euro. Take a photo with Ronaldinho or Messi at 13 euro (post card size) or 21 euro for the big frame one. Dont miss it.

P8130686 The green route is the shortest for u who love to be in the beach. Go by this routes in the afternoons, have fun on the beach untill the sundown.

P8130713 Have a gd rest and ready for the last day as u will travel to the Montserrat, one of the famous mountain or hill in B’lona. Its quite cool here, so bring a long yr jacket and pack yr food. The ticket to here is 20 euro’s. Again u can buy the ticket from the informtn counter. The ticket cover yr train and cable car. The train is about 1 hour journey and the cable car is about 30 minutes to the top. Its fantastic, u can see very gd view of the nature. For the back packers, u can climb up to the top, ask the tourist info centre for a guide.

Wish u all d best in yr planning & enjoy yr trip. Have fun in Barcelona. Thanks to my 2 frens, Nadia n Tarifa for the sweet memories. Next trip to Italy, Rome, Turkey, will coming soon. Tungguuuuuuuuuu…..Enjoy guys!!!P8130753¬†

Note: The price stated may change frm to time to time. Surf the internet for the new info. TQ


Posted by Ipah

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